Thursday, May 21, 2020

Imaginary Maps By Mahasweta Devi And Heart Of Darkness

The darkest of hearts is the most ignorant and tormented. The human capability of being evil and hateful is undeniable. As a species, humans can be selfish, vicious creatures. For these reasonings the theories of good and evil exist to separate humans into two sub groups of personalities. As it seems, everyone is capable of evil, and everyone is capable of good. In the novel Imaginary Maps by Mahasweta Devi and Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, the readers are thrust into colonized and post-colonization settings where indigenous groups are exploited for their resources and rejected for their cultures. Imaginary Maps author Mahasweta Devi is an outspoken activist on the care and treatment of natives in India. Imaginary Maps is a fascinating story which interconnects facts involving the treatment of natives and a fictitious plot and characters. Although a fiction, the story actively reviews the dos and don ts of being an activist. As well as a guideline, the book also gives insight i nto the divide between natives and what is considered â€Å"civilized† society. Imaginary Maps centers around journalist Puran as he delves into the tribal region of Pirtha and discovers the indigenous cultures and epidemic circumstances. Heart of Darkness is a classic novella following the protagonist, Marlow, as he journeys through the colonized Congo as a captain of a steam boat. Whilst on his journey, the reader gets a sense of the treatment and racism exhibited upon the native Congo people by

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Energy, Coal, And Natural Gas - 1136 Words

Energy is a fundamental factor to the existence of humans on this planet; without it, modern society would be unsustainable. Consequently, the sourcing and production of energy is a critical global issue that must be addressed. Currently, the most common energy sources are fossil fuels: oil, coal, and natural gas. The consumption of fossil fuels is not sustainable in the long run as the resources are not infinite, and as energy consumption increases, the earth’s natural resources (fossil fuels) are depleted. The belief that conventional energy sources are unsustainable prompted the development and use of renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, and hydroelectric. The sustainability of energy is such a demanding issue that Germany†¦show more content†¦The accident released 940 Petabecquerels of radioactive materials into the atmosphere, causing the evacuation of 100,000 people from their homes to prevent radiation sickness. In light of this accident, the federal government of Germany decided to review the safety of all German nuclear power plants even though Germany at the time, was 30% nuclear-powered. After Fukushima, 41% of Germany’s nuclear power capacity (8 units of 17 total) was promptly shut down, with the rest of the units to be disabled by 2022. The events at Fukushima fueled Germany to reevaluate German energy policies and provided the platform for meaningful discussion regarding Germany’s future in energy. Ultimately, it was understood that nuclear energy was simply not sustainable, nor safe to comprise such a significant portion of Germany’s energy sector. Not only was the safety of the German population a concern in regards to nuclear energy, but also the use of fossil fuels and the impact of burning fossil fuels globally supplemented Germany’s concern with current energy productions. Carbon emissions and their impact on climate globally was one of the many reasons Germany felt compelled to drastically change energy policy. It is largely discussed politically and socially that the emission of carbon into the atmosphere is partly responsible for the warming of the climate globally. As a country that has contributed the most to carbon

Pakistan’s Educational System Free Essays

The education system of Pakistan is one is the least-developed in the world. Until 1947, the educational system was based on the British colonial educational system. In 1947, Pakistan gained independence resulting from the partition of the Indian subcontinent into the states of India and Pakistan. We will write a custom essay sample on Pakistan’s Educational System or any similar topic only for you Order Now The colonial system was selective. It was meant to educate a small section of the population to run the government. Regardless of the changes since independence, the Pakistani education system has kept its colonial system, to prevent the lose of illiteracy. Pakistan’s educational system is divided into five levels. The pre-university education includes four levels. The first is the primary level, which is grades one to five. Then, the middle level consisting of grades six to eight. Next is the high level, grades nine and ten. Then is the intermediate level which is grades eleven and twelve, leading to a diploma in arts or science. There is also a university level, which lead to undergraduate and graduate degrees. The Pakistani educational system is based on removing political power from local levels and concentrate it in a central authority. All of the institutions involved in academic and technical education, up to the intermediate level are controlled by the Ministry of Education. For any education programs above those levels, there is a government- enabled university in the four Pakistani provinces. The four provinces are Punjab, Baluchistan, and the North West Frontier. The universities are in control of organizing instructions and exams for their province. Separate from the Ministry of Education, other ministries supervise certain degree programs. Other private and nonprofit school and universities have started to come up in Pakistan. Some examples are the Lahore University of Management Sciences and the Aga Khan medical University in Karachi. Since they are privately funded, they provide a chance for higher education for a small portion of people who do not have the opportunity to pursue their education at publicly funded universities, that have limited annual admission. Despite the plans of the Pakistani government, the educational system has failed to get rid of illiteracy after their era of independence. It has also failed to teach a number of people to meet the needs of the country in different fields. This had been a major disablement to the nation’s economic development. The government reforms in the 1950’s, 1960’s, and 1970’s did not bring up these problem. They mainly focused on replacing English, the colonial language of education, with Urdu, the language of most Pakistanis. The reforms also led to the making school public. Dealing with the flaws of the educational system, the Pakistani government organized new reforms in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s. These made three major processes begin. The government privatized the school that were made public in the 1970’s. It also cancelled the process of making Urdu the language of education and encouraged to go back to English language in private schools. Finally, the government stressed Pakistani studies and Islamic studies as two major parts of the curriculum. This was a major change from colonial education’s based on British history and English literature. The changes have improved the educational system and have increased the number of literate Pakistanis, but there are still some struggles. Educational funding is low. Also, there is little political efforts to make improvements. Pakistan’s expenses on education is not enough to meet the growing needs for education services for the nation’s increasing population. On the other hand, In the 1999-2000 school year, government spending on education was 2 percent of Pakistan’s gross national product. This amount shows a decrease from 1995-1997. School enrollment also increased from 19 percent in 1980 to 24 percent in 1990. The Pakistani educational system showed a lot of discrimination against women. This unfairness was shown in the pattern of literacy, which shows a strong relationship between gender and literacy rates. The illiteracy rate is very high among Pakistani women of all ages. In 1998, the adult illiteracy raters were 42 percent for males and 71 percent for females. In the same year, the illiteracy rate for male youth and female youth was 25 and 53 percent. This gender-based favoritism has contributed to the continued illiteracy and shortage of educated people and has had major impacts on the underdevelopment of Pakistan. The educational system of Pakistan has been unable to meet the needs of educational requirements of the Pakistanis. The system needs extreme investment to increase the number of educational institutions and to train and find a sufficient amount of educators at all levels. The Pakistani government has limited financial resources, which is not enough to meet all of Pakistan’s needs. Added to the money spend because of the unstable relations between India and Pakistan and a huge foreign debt further reduce the available resources for educational purposes. Unless the worsening Pakistani economy improves there is little hope for a significant change in Pakistan’s educational system in the future. How to cite Pakistan’s Educational System, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Theory Of Evolution Essays - Charles Darwin, Evolutionary Biology

Theory Of Evolution CHARLES DARWIN AND THE THEORY OF EVOLUTION It is commonly thought today that the theory of evolution originated from Darwin in the nineteenth century. However, the idea that species mutate over time has been around for a long time in one form or another. Therefore, by Darwin's time the idea that species change from one type into another was by no means new, but was rejected by most because the proponents of evolution could not come up with a satisfactory mechanism that would explain this change. The most influential evolutionary theories prior to Darwin were those of Lamarck and Geoffroy St. Hilaire, developed between 1794 and 1830. Lamarck suggested that species evolve through the use or disuse of particular organs. In the classic example a giraffe that stretches its neck slightly to reach higher leaves will gain in neck length, and this small gain would be passed on to its offspring. Geoffroy, on the other hand suggested that the change was discontinuous, large in magnitude, and occurred at the production of offspring. However, these theories of evolution were based on a priori explanations that offered no demonstrated mechanism. Darwin's theory of evolution differs in that it is based on three easily verified observations. First, individuals within a species vary from one another in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Second, variation is in some part heritable so that variant forms have offspring that resemble them. Third, different variants leave different number of offspring. Darwin than proceeded to elaborate on the mechanism of evolution by suggesting that in the universal struggle for life, nature selects those individuals who are best suited (fittest) for the struggle, and these individuals in turn reproduce more than those who are less fit, thus changing the composition of the population. In addition to natural selection, Darwin also suggested that species also evolve through the complementary process of sexual selection. According to Darwin, in sexual selection, one gender of a species develops a preference for individuals of the other gender who possess certain features. The individuals who possess these features will than have a reproductive advantage over others, resulting in a greater number of offspring, and thus, again, a change in the composition of the population. Therefore, it was Darwin who made the theory of evolution feasible by providing the mechanisms of natural and sexual selection. Darwin's Formative Years Charles Darwin was born in England in 1809 and belonged to a wealthy and respectable family. His grandfather, Erasamus Darwin, was a noted botanical expert in his day who published two important books, Zoonomia, and the Botanic Garden. In these books, Erasamus speculated about various evolutionary ideas that were dismissed as too radical (i.e., the nose of the swine has become hard for the purpose of turning up the soil in search of insects and roots). Darwin who in his youth read his grandfather's books with admiration, later commented that his grandfather anticipated the views and erroneous grounds of opinion of Lamarck. Nevertheless, Erasamus may have unconsciously influenced Darwin in preparing the way for evolution by natural selection. In 1818, at the age of 9, Darwin entered the Shrewsbury school, which was ran by Dr. Butler. Darwin later recalled that nothing could have been worse for the development of my mind than Dr. Butler's school, as it was strictly classical, nothing else being taught , except a little ancient geography and history. The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. He was removed from the school in 1825, and was sent to Edinburgh to study medicine. There he studied for two years before deciding that he didn't like medicine. But before he left Edinburgh, he was introduced for the first time to the theories of Lamarck. According to Darwin at the time he was not very impressed with Lamarck's ideas. In 1828, at his father's suggestion, Darwin entered Christ's College in Cambridge to become a clergyman. To Darwin a good education meant instruction in the methods and logic of thought. Therefore, Just about the only thing he enjoyed studying there was Paley's works on theology, because of their logic. For the rest, however, he judged Cambridge to be just as much a waste of time as Edinburgh and Shrewsbury. Nevertheless, in his spare time at Cambridge, Darwin became interested in various scientific endeavors, and became acquainted with and influenced by the scientific ideas of Henslow, Sedgwick, and Whewell

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

U.S Involvement in Bosnia essays

U.S Involvement in Bosnia essays The United States Involvement in Bosnia; is it positive or negative. After a lifetime of war in Bosnia, can the United States really offer positive change? To truly get a feel for the conflict in this region we must first look at the long-standing hatred between the occupying ethnic groups: Serbs, Muslims, and Croats. From 1481 to 1903 the Ottoman Empire was the ruling body over the entire Balkan region. By the early nineteen hundreds the Ottoman Empire had collapsed. In 1918, at the end of World War One, Russia annexed the Balkan region renaming it Yugoslavia. In 1919 Joseph Stalin, Communist ruler of Russia and its satellite states (i.e. Yugoslavia), appointed Tito to be the head of Yugoslavia. Tito quickly became an iron fisted and ruthless dictator. The Machiavellian characteristics exhibited by Tito have given all Serbs a reputation as being strong armed and merciless. With Titos death in 1991, Yugoslavia collapsed and split into 3 independent states: Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Croatia. In 1994 Slovadon Malosovitch was elected ruler of the Serbian state. Incidents of mass genocide and several other war crimes became regular occurrences under his rule. The Bosnian crisis has shown the world the worst of human nature. On behalf of the United Nations, in an effort to settle the unrest in the Balk an region, The United States became involved in 1995. The United States involvement includes: the commitment of twenty thousand troops, the troop support of legions of tanks and other vehicles, and the full support of the United States Government. Unfortunately this upset the native Bosnian people. So, although the United States feels obligated to help the Bosnian Cause, they may be worsening the situation with their involvement, both there and in the U.S There are two sides to this story. The first is the opinion that the United States should completely withdraw from Bosnia. The other opinion is that the United St...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Forest Succession Stages and Maturity

Forest Succession Stages and Maturity Successional changes in plant communities were recognized and described well before the 20th century. Frederick E. Clements observations were developed into theory while he created the original vocabulary and published the first scientific explanation for the process of succession in his book, Plant Succession: An Analysis of the Development of Vegetation. It is very interesting to note that sixty years earlier, Henry David Thoreau described forest succession for the first time in his book, The Succession of Forest Trees. Plant Succession Trees play a major role in creating terrestrial plant cover when conditions develop to the point where some bare-ground and soil is present. Trees grow alongside grasses, herbs, ferns, and shrubs and compete with these species for future plant community replacement and their own survival as a species. The process of that race toward a stable, mature, climax plant community is called succession which follows a successional pathway and each major step reached along the way is called a new seral stage. Primary succession typically occurs very slowly when site conditions are unfriendly to most plants but where a few unique plant species can catch, hold, and thrive. Trees are not often present under these initial harsh conditions. Plants and animals resilient enough to first colonize such sites are the base community that kick starts the complex development of soil and refines the local climate. Site examples of this would be rocks and cliffs, dunes, glacial till, and volcanic ash. Both primary and secondary sites in initial succession are characterized by full exposure to the sun, violent fluctuations in temperatures, and rapid changes in moisture conditions. Only the hardiest of organisms can adapt at first. Secondary succession tends to happen most often on abandoned fields, dirt, and gravel fills, roadside cuts, and after poor logging practices where disturbance has occurred. It can also start very rapidly where the existing community is completely destroyed by fire, flood, wind, or destructive pests. Clements defines the succession mechanism as a process involving several phases when on completion is called a sere. These phases are: 1.) Development of a bare site called Nudism; 2.) Introduction of living regenerative plant material called Migration; 3.) Establishment of vegetative growth called Ecesis; 4.) Plant competition for space, light, and nutrients called Competition; 5.) Plant community changes that affect the habitat called Reaction; 6.) Final development of a climax community called Stabilization. Forest Succession in More Detail Forest succession is considered a secondary succession in most field biology and forest ecology texts but also has its own particular vocabulary. The forest process follows a timeline of tree species replacement and in this order: from pioneer seedlings and saplings to transition forest to young growth forest to mature forest to old growth forest. Foresters generally manage stands of trees that are developing as part of a secondary succession. The most important tree species in terms of economic value are a part of one of several serial stages below the climax. It is, therefore, important that a forester manage his forest by controlling the tendency of that community to move toward a climax species forest. As presented in the forestry text, Principles of Silviculture, Second Edition, foresters use silvicultural practices to maintain the stands in the seral stage that meets societys objectives most closely.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Hewlett-Packard Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Hewlett-Packard - Essay Example At the present moment, the company enjoys a strong brand, but the loyalty of the customers is decreasing since they are switching to other products for various reasons. In spite of the fact that one it used to be the leader of innovation, nowadays, HP is not known to have produced anything groundbreaking. The major problems that the company in question is facing today include bad acquisitions, lack of innovation and outsourcing (Mourdoukoutas, 2014). For example, it acquired the company called Autonomy for a considerable amount of money, but the purchase appeared to be not useful at all, resulting in heavy financial losses. The similar can be witnessed when one analyzes sales as well. As for the issues that the company is facing, one should note lack of certainty in the future. In the middle of the previous century the organization could boast a widely developed culture, but now it is torn apart. Therefore, with the lack of proper leadership and innovations, it is highly unlikely tha t there will be bright future for it. There are many threats that HP recognizes. First of all, it is increased competition from another brand. For example, Lenovo is known to have taken over many areas that HP used to dominate, including server production. In addition to that, the major players in the market like Google and Apple are known for their innovation which is surely not a characteristic feature of the contemporary HP. That is why is nothing changed the company will be pushed off the market.